Boston Children’s Hospital

300 Longwood Ave,
Boston, MA
Phone: (617) 919-2900
Fax: (617) 730-0254

TRAINING PROGRAM DIRECTOR:Tanvi Sharma, MD RESEARCH INTEREST: Pediatric HIV; Infections in immunocompromised hosts

CHIEF OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES:Michael Wessels, MD RESEARCH INTEREST:Molecular pathogenesis of streptococcal infection

ASSOCIATE:Asim Ahmed, MD RESEARCH INTEREST:Arboviruses and mechanisms of viral entry

ASSOCIATE:Anna Aldovini, MD RESEARCH INTEREST:HIV Pathogenesis; Vaccine development

ASSOCIATE:Sandra Burchett MD RESEARCH INTEREST:Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of vertically transmitted HIV infection; Congenital infections

ASSOCIATE:Simon Dove, Ph.D. RESEARCH INTEREST:Regulation of transcription in pathogenic bacteria

ASSOCIATE:  Jeffrey Dvorin, MD, PhD.  RESEARCH INTEREST:  Malaria; Parasitology; Tropical medicine

ASSOCIATE:Donald Goldmann,MD RESEARCH INTEREST:Epidemiology of nosocomial infection; pathogenesis of staphylococcal infection

ASSOCIATE:Courtney Gidengil, MD, MPH   RESEARCH INTEREST:Pediatric Health Services Research; Vaccine economics; Vaccine policy; Antibiotic Resistance

ASSOCIATE:Ioannis Gryllos, PhD RESEARCH INTEREST:Pathogenesis mechanisms of group A streptococcus

ASSOCIATE:Marvin Harper, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Health Information IT and quality of care; Management of febrile young children; Acute diagnosis and management of pneumonia and its complications; Initial diagnosis of meningitis

ASSOCIATE:Robert Husson, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Molecular pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection

ASSOCIATE:Julia Koehler, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Molecular genetics of Candida albicans pathogenesis and drug susceptibility

ASSOCIATE:Catherine Lachenauer, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Infections in immunocompromised hosts; Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy

ASSOCIATE:Grace Lee, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Epidemiology of infectious diseases; Health services research; Vaccine economics and policy

ASSOCIATE:Katherine Lemon, MD, PhD RESEARCH INTEREST:Human upper respiratory tract microbiome

ASSOCIATE:Ofer Levy, MD, PhD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Innate immunity to microbial infection

ASSOCIATE:Yingjie Lu, PhD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Vaccine development of streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens

ASSOCIATE:Richard Malley, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Pneumococcal pathogenesis and immunity; vaccine development


ASSOCIATE:Kenneth McIntosh, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Natural history, treatment and prevention of HIV infection

ASSOCIATE:John Misasi, MD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Mechanisms of filovirus entry into host cells

ASSOCIATE:  Kristin Moffitt, MD RESEARCH INTEREST:  Host bacterial pathogen interactions; Bacaterial vaccine development

ASSOCIATE:Mari M. Nakamura, MD, MPH. RESEARCH INTEREST:Promoting effective use of vaccines; Using health information technology to improve pediatric safety and quality

ASSOCIATE:Greg Priebe, MD RESEARCH INTEREST:Pathogenesis of immunity to infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

ASSOCIATE:Thomas Sandora, MD, MPH RESEARCH INTEREST:Hand hygiene; patient safety; clinical effectiveness

ASSOCIATE:Michael Silverman, MD, PhD RESEARCH INTEREST:Interactions between the gut microbiota, MHC/HLA genes and protection from type I diabetes


ASSOCIATE:Neeraj Surana, MD, PhD RESEARCH INTERESTS:Immunological effects of microbiota

ASSOCIATE:Paula Watnick, MD, PhD RESEARCH INTEREST:Cholera pathogenesis; biofilms


TITLE(S) OF RECENT FELLOWS’ PUBLISHED PAPERS OR RESEARCH PROJECTS: Lieberman, T.D., Michel, J., Aingaran, M ., Potter-Bynoe,  G., Roux, D., Davis MR Jr., Skurnik, D., Leiby, N., LiPuma, J.J., Goldberg, J.B., McAdam, A.J., Priebe, G.P., Kishony, R. (2011) Parallel bacterial evolution within multiple patients identifies candidate pathogenicity genes.  Nat Genet43:1275-80. Aingaran M., Zhang R., Law S.K.*, Peng .Z.*, Undisz A., Meyer E., Diez-Silva M., Burke T.A., Spielmann T., Lim C.T., Suresh S., Dao M., Marti M. (2012)  Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  Cell Microbiol 14:983-93. Welsh EJ, Cohn KA Nigrovic LE, Thompson AD, Hines EM, Lyons TW, Glatz AC, Shah SS. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in children with Lyme meningitis. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2012;1:293-298. Thompson AD, Cohn KA, Shah SS, Lyons T, Welsh EJ, Hines EM, Nigrovic LE.  Treatment complications in children with lyme meningitis.  Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Oct;31(10):1032-5.Keri A. Cohn M.D. D.T.M.H. Amy D. Thompson M.D. Samir S. Shah M.D. M.S.C.E.  Elizabeth M. Hines B.A. Todd W. Lyons M.D. Elizabeth J. Welsh, B.A., Lise E. Nigrovic M.D. M.P.H   Validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish Lyme meningitis from aseptic meningitis.   Pediatrics, January 2012. Cohn KA.  “Severe Acute Malnutrition in the Developing World.  Division of Global Health and Human Rights at Massachusetts General Hospital and Initiative to End Childhood Malnutrition.”   Cohn KA. “Multicenter Validation of a Lyme Meningitis Clinical Decision Rule.” Demirjian A, Finkelstein Y, Nava-Ocampo A, Arnold A, Jones S, Monuteaux M, Sandora TJ, Patterson A, Harper MB. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Vancomycin Loading Dose in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Jun 28.Vorobjev IA, Buchholz K, Prabhat P, Ketman K, Egan E, Marti M, Duraisingh M. 2012.Optimization of flow cytometric detection and cell sorting of transgenic Plasmodium parasites usinginterchangeable optical filters. Malaria J. 11: 312. Flett KB , Rao S, Dominguez SR, Bernard T, Glode MP. Variability in the diagnosis of encephalitis by pediatric subspecialists: the need for a uniform definition. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2012; doi: 10.1093/jpids/pis094.Flett K, Youngster I, Huang J, McAdam A, Sandora TJ, Rennick M, Smole S, Rogers SL, Nix WA, Oberste MS, Gellis S, Ahmed AA. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6 [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis 2012;18(10):1702-1704. Flett K.” Genomic diversity and evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in acute infection.” Flett, K. “Impact of mandatory reporting of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) on antibiotic and blood culture utilization.” Flett K. “Home oxygen for bronchiolitis: Outpatient course and subsequent admission.”. Daniel T. Leung, Jori Bogetz, Megumi Itoh, Lakshmi Ganapathi, Mark A. C. Pietroni, Edward T. Ryan, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti. Factors associated with encephalopathy in patients with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteremia presenting to a diarrheal hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 2012; 86(4): 698-702. Doi:10:4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0750. Ganapathi, L. “Lyme meningitis treatment and outcomes. A single center experience of a large urban pediatric hospital. Children’s Hospital Boston ( Boston, MA ).”Ganapathi, L. “Creating an interactive global health map for global health projects and staff involvement. Children’s Hospital Boston ( Boston, MA ). Ganpathi, L. “Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with sickle cell disease in the post PCV 13 vaccine era. Children’s Hospital Boston / Boston Medical Center ( Boston, MA ). Chappuy H, Keitel K, Gehri M, Tabin R, Robitaille L, Raymond F, Corbeil J, Maspoli V, Bouazza N, Alcoba G, Lacroix L, Manzano S, Galetto-Lacour A, Gervaix A. Nasopharyngeal carriage of individual Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes during pediatric radiologically confirmed community acquired pneumonia following  PCV7 introduction in Switzerland. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 31;13:357. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-357. PubMed PMID: 23899390. Keitel K, Wagner N, Lacroix L, Manzano S, Gervaix A. Performance characteristics of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for detection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;170(4):511-7. doi:10.1007/s00431-010-1326-0. Epub 2010 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 20938682. Rakoff-Nahoum S, Bousvaros,A. Innateandadaptiveimmuneconnectionsin inflammatoryboweldiseases. Curr OpinGastroenterol.2010 Nov;26(6):572-7. Ciaranello, A., Park, J., Ramirez-Avila, L., Freedberg, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Leroy, V. (2011).  Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis programs in resource limited settings: opportunities for improved outcomes and more cost-effective interventions. BMC Medicine, 9,59. Ramirez-Avila, L., Regan, S., Giddy, J., Katz, J., Losina, E., Freedberg, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Bassett, I.V. (2012). Risk of depressive symptoms and their impact on health-seeking behaviors in newly-diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Durban, South Africa. AIDS and Behavior, e-published. Ramirez-Avila, L., Nixon, K., Noubary, F., Losina, E., Walensky, R.P., Bassett, I.V.  (2011).  Routine HIV testing in an outpatient clinic in Durban, South Africa: the adolescent and young adult experience.  PLOS One, e-published. Ramirez-Avila, L., Noubary, F., Pansegrouw, D., Sithole, S., Giddy, J., Losina, E., Walensky, R.P., Bassett, I.V.B.  The acceptability and feasibility of routine pediatric HIV testing in an outpatient department in Durban, South Africa, PIDJ 20 May 2013;doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31829ba34b. Schwenk H, Vo P, Moffitt K, Kehoe E, Blume B, Sharma T, Khatwa U. Allograft-Transmitted Histoplasma capsulatum Infection in a Solid Organ Transplant Recipient. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society; doi: 10.1093/jpids/pis086.Schwenk H, Graham D, Sharma T, Sandora T. National Use of Vancomycin for Pediatric Clostridium difficile Infection is Increasing and Associated with Specific Patient Characteristics, in press, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. AAC.00661-13 ; published ahead of print 24 June 201 3   Silverman M. “Interactions between the MHC locus, gut microbiota and autoimmunity”.Fred D, Desai M, Song R, Bamrah S, Pavlin BI, Heetderks A, Ekiek MJ: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Chuuk State Federated States of Micronesia, 2008-2009. Pac Health Dialog. 2010 Apr;16(1):123-7.Brostrom R, Fred D, Heetderks A, Desai M, Song R, Haddad M, Wada R, Bamrah S: Islands of hope: building local capacity to manage an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Pacific. Am J Public Health. 2011 Jan;101(1):14-8.Chung, H., Pamp, S.J., Hill, J.A., Surana, N.K.,Edelman, S.M., Troy, E.B., Reading, N.C., Villablanca, E.J., Wang, S., Mora, J.R., Umesaki, Y.,Mathis, D., Benoist, C., Relman, D.A., Kasper, D.L. (2012) Gut immune maturation depends upon colonization with host specific microbiota. Cell. 149: 1578-93. Chen, V.L., Surana, N.K., Duan, J., Kasper, D.L. (2013) Role of murine intestinal interleukin-1 receptor 1-expressing lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells in Salmonella infection. PLOS One. 8(6): e65405. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065405.Surana, N.K. and Kasper, D.L. (2012) The yin yang of bacterial polysaccharides: Lessons learned from B. fragilis PSA. Immunol Rev. 245: 13-26.. Vaz L. “Trends in Antibiotic Dispensings”.  Vaz L. “ Effect of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Policies “.Vaz LE. Cholera. Chapter in: Textbook of Clinical Pediatrics, 2nd ed. Eds: Elzouki, A.Y., Stapleton, F.B., Whitley, R.J., Oh, W., Harfi, H.A., Nazer, H. Springer. Jan 2012  Mahajan, Reena [Vaz, LE as reported by CHB hospital group]. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Through Transplanted Organs and Tissue — Kentucky and Massachusetts, 2011. MMWR. December 23, 2011 / 60(50);1697-1700. Velarde J. “Structure and Function Studies of the Extracellular domain of CsrS, a Two-Component Sensor of Group A Streptococcus, and its interactions with Mg++ and LL-37.”    Youngster I, Arcavi L, Schechmaster R, Akayzen Y, Popliski H, Shimonov J, Beig S, Berkovitch M.Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review .  Drug Saf. 2010 Sep 1;33(9):713-26.Youngster I,  Kozer E, Lazarovitch Z, Broide E, Goldman M.  Probiotics and the Immunologic Response to Infant Vaccinations– a Prospective, Placebo Controlled Pilot Study.Arch Dis Child. 2011 Apr;96(4):345-9. McDonagh EM, Thorn CF,  Bautista JM, Youngster I,  Altman RB, Klein TE. PharmGKB summary – very important pharmacogene information for G6PD. Pharmacogenet Genom, 2012 Mar;22(3):219-28. Bar-Oz B, Weber-Schoendorfer C, Berlin M, Clementi M, Di Gianantonio E, de Vries L, De Santis M, Merlob P, Stahl B, Eleftheriou G, Maňáková E, Hubičková-Heringová L, Youngster I, Berkovitch M. The outcomes of pregnancy in women exposed to the new macrolides in the first trimester: a prospective, multicentre, observational study. Drug Saf. 2012 Jul 1;35(7):589-98. Youngster I, Rachmiel R, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Bistritzer T, Zuckerman-Levin N, de Vries L, Naugolny L, Eyal O, Braunstein R, Rachmiel M. Treatment with Recombinant Human Growth Hormone during Childhood is Associated with Increased Intraocular Pressure. J Pediatr. 2012 Dec;161(6):1116-9.McDonagh EM, Bautista JM, Youngster I, Altman RB, Klein TE . PharmGKB summary: methylene blue pathway  Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013 Sep;23(9):498-508.

GRANT FUNDING RECEIVED FOR FELLOW RESEARCH PROJECTS: Pediatric Scientist Development Award; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society St. Jude Award; NIH Training Grant; NIH individual training awards

MAJOR FEATURES OF TRAINING PROGRAM:The goal of this training program is to prepare fellows for a career in academic Pediatric Infectious Diseases. This fellowship begins with one year of intensive clinical training, including diagnostic microbiology/virology and one month of clinical training in infectious diseases of adults. The second and third years are devoted primarily to research, either in the laboratory or as part of training programs in clinical research, epidemiology or health services research. The program is closely associated with the internal medicine infectious diseases units of the neighboring Harvard hospitals, as well as with the Department of Microbiology of Harvard Medical School . Research opportunities are available with the faculty in our division, and with faculty in affiliated institutions.

AFFILIATED HOSPITALS:Boston Children’s Hospital








Program provides training in diagnostic microbiology using laboratories on site:

Microbiology laboratory: YES
Clinical virus isolation laboratory: YES
Molecular diagnostics: YES
Other – Please specify:

Program provides training in infection control and hospital epidemiology as:

Didactic lectures: YES
Hands on experience: YES
Infection Control Meetings/Membership: NO

Opportunity to fulfill the ABP requirements for scholarly activity is available in the following general areas:

Bacteriology/bacterial infections: YES
Epidemiology and statistics: YES
Infection control/hospital epidemiology: YES
Immunizations/Public health: YES
Mycology/fungal infections: YES
Parasitology/parasitic diseases: YES
Virology/viral diseases: YES
Antimicrobial agents: YES
Other – Please specify: Outcomes research

Research opportunities in the section’s program could be described as:

Basic (bench): YES
Molecular: YES
Translational: YES
Epidemiologic: YES
Clinical: YES
International/Public Health: YES
Health Services: YES
HIV, Basic: YES
HIV, Clinical: YES
Other – Please specify:

Documented liaison exists offering opportunities for research experience n the laboratory of investigator(s) who is (are) not faculty of the section: YES

Program offers the opportunity to obtain a Master’s degree in a field such as Public Health, Education, Clinical Sciences, or Epidemiology (assuming appropriate arrangements are made): YES

Other – Please specify:

Graduate school courses are available to trainee (assuming appropriate arrangements are made): YES

Program provides substantial clinical experiences for trainees in special areas/hosts:

Bone marrow transplantation: YES
Solid organ/transplantation: YES
Travelers/adoptees: YES
Adults: YES
Congenital immune deficiencies: YES
Other – Please specify:

Program includes ABP-required core curricula in scholarly activities in didactic lecture course for fellows (includes epidemiology, statistics, research design, and academic careers): YES

Program has an NIH-sponsored training grant:YES

The Infectious Diseases Service is the primary care provider for HIV-infected children and adolescents: NO

Average number of new outpatient consultations per month: 51

Average number of established outpatient follow-up visits per month: 60

Average number of new inpatient consultations per month: 79

Number of trainees completing program in the last 5 years: (2008-2013): 15

Improving the health of children worldwide through philanthropic support of scientific and educational programs.